Grease for an electric future

In a quest to make lithium complex greases more sustainable and better suited for use in electric motors, Nynas teamed up with Solvay to study the response of some ionic liquids in lubricating greases.

Mehdi Fathi-Najafi

Senior Technical Advisor and Chief Specialist, Nynas 

When the hardware changes, the software needs to follow suit. Similarly, the electrification of vehicles heralds changes in the greases used to lubricate their engines.

“The requirements for lubrication in electric vehicles are significantly different from those in combustion engine vehicles. An electric vehicle running on conventional lubricants can lose as much as 30% of its efficiency due to poor lubrication,” says Nynas’ chief specialist Mehdi Fathi-Najafi.

“These new systems require new properties such as electrical conductivity, higher tolerance to temperature, longer life and potentially compatibility to new materials – it is a great opportunity to identify useful solutions” says Eamonn Conrad, Head of Business Development –Phosphorus, at Solvay.

Attempting to find suitable electrification-proof solutions, Nynas and Solvay decided to examine if the properties of a standard type of grease could be improved by new additives. For decades, increasingly advanced additive systems have been developed to maximise the efficiency of vehicles, for instance by reducing the friction between moving parts. The idea was to investigate whether improvements could be made that might benefit both electric and internal combustion engines, leading to greater efficiency and better fuel economy.

Commonly used to lubricate bearings in automotive and industrial applications, lithium complex greases were chosen as the starting point. As for additives, the focus settled on ionic liquids due to their established anti-wear and extreme pressure (AW/EP) performance and the additional requirements around conductivity and lifetime.

“Ionic liquids provide a low coefficient of friction and high wear resistance and have previously been used in neat solution to reduce friction between moving parts. But they can cause corrosive effects and for some applications their cost may prove prohibitive,” explains Mehdi Fathi-Najafi.

The unique conditions of the electric vehicle motor and the market drive to grow these vehicles have led to a situation where ionic liquids can be a viable solution.

In addition to their proven AW/EP properties, phosphonium ionic liquids demonstrate desirable properties such as high thermal stability and the ability to improve electrical conductivity. Importantly, Ionic liquids also meet criteria for electric vehicle engines, such as being metal-free.

“We have identified two promising additive candidates and continue to refine formulations to improve the overall efficiency of these systems. Based on our results so far, we believe that the addition of phosphonium salts has potential,” says Mehdi Fathi-Najafi.

“This work is critical for improving fuel efficiency and energy usage, and for enabling further electrification of motor vehicles,” he adds.

“It is an exciting time; the industry is forced to do something new due to the unique requirements of electrification, and at Solvay we are very fortunate to have a great partner like Nynas to investigate this field,” states Eamonn Conrad.

Promising findings

  • Four different lithium complex greases were used in the study. Table 1 shows some of the characteristics of the neat lithium complex greases, in which Azelaic acid was used as complexing agent. Two of the base oils used, T 600 and S 90, are Nynas naphthenic oils.
  • Two different ionic liquids were added to these greases – tetrabutylphosphonium bromide (IL3) and tetraoctylphosphonium bromide (IL4) – in concentrations of 5 wt%.
  • Figure 1 demonstrates the impact of temperature and the two ionic liquids (IL3 and IL4) on the electrical conductivity. The testing program can be considered as a static test, yet some valuable information was still gained.
  • The results shown in Figure 1 suggest that the electrical conductivity of model liquid complex greases can be increased (by 3 to 4 orders of magnitude) through the addition of as little as 5 wt% of the phosphonium ionic liquids used in this study.
  • For tribological testing, several standard methods were employed, including ASTM D5706 and ASTM D5707 using SVR and ASTM D2266 and ASTM D2596 using a four-ball machine. Some of the results generated by SVR methods are shown in Table 2. These results reveal a significant reduction in wear and friction coefficient by IL3. However, the lowest wear volume and friction coefficient are achieved using 5 wt% of IL3 in any of the model greases.

Further reading

Matching polarity essential in bentonite grease

Naphthenic base oils work perfectly well in bentonite grease as long as producers make sure that they match the polarity of the oil to that of the bentonite. René Abrahams offers some advice to grease formulators.

Revealing the role of sulfur

As sulfur holds the key to antioxidant behaviour in base oils, model studies help Nynas researchers realise how to improve the oxidation stability of the company’s lubricant base oils through the addition of sulfur-containing secondary antioxidants.

Grease lubrication of roller element bearings

Our knowledge of what actually happens when grease lubrication is used has increased dramatically in the last ten years. The latest research gives a new view on how to formulate grease to optimise its effect under different conditions, not least when it comes to adapting the grease to the temperature a machine operates at.

THERE IS MORE TO US THAN THIS

We are delighted you are interested in our products. If you have any questions about our products and services, get in touch with your local Nynas contact. Besides top quality oils, we offer a wide range of services, including rapid delivery worldwide, training, seminars and much more. All you have to do is ask.

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David Barnett

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 Marcela Tocelis

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Customer Service Executive

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Customer Service Executive

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Regional Director

 Marcela Tocelis

Marcela Tocelis

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 Martin Vergara

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Customer Service Executive

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Customer Service Coordinator

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Customer Service Coordinator

 Marcela Tocelis

Marcela Tocelis

Sales Manager / Acting General Manager

 Martin Vergara

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Customer Service Executive

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Lee Anne Williams

Customer Service Coordinator

David Barnett

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General Manager

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Customer Service Executive

Lee Anne Williams

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Customer Service Coordinator

 Henrik Marits

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Viktor Risendal

Sales Executive Nordic

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Customer Service Coordinator

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Customer Service Executive

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Regional Director

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General Manager Germany & Austria

Lars Fischer

Lars Fischer

Sales Executive Process Oils

 Elena Campmann

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Customer Service Specialist – Global Processes and Development Lead

Selina Walther

Selina Walther

Customer Service Coordinator

Michelle Krämer

Michelle Krämer

Customer Service Coordinator

David Barnett

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General Manager

 Samantha Moodley

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Customer Service Executive

Lee Anne Williams

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Customer Service Coordinator

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General Manager

Sabine Langmuller

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Customer Service Coordinator

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Margita Thorén

Customer Service Coordinator

 Marcela Tocelis

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 Martin Vergara

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Customer Service Coordinator

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Customer Service Executive

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David Barnett

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Customer Service Executive

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Customer Service Executive

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Marcela Tocelis

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Customer Service Executive

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Marcela Tocelis

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Global Customer Service Specialist & Project lead

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Sales Manager

Shoeb Ahmed

Shoeb Ahmed

Customer Service Coordinator

 Sibala Libish Kumar

Sibala Libish Kumar

Global Customer Service Specialist & Project lead

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Global Customer Service Specialist & Project lead

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Customer Service Coordinator

 Sibala Libish Kumar

Sibala Libish Kumar

Global Customer Service Specialist & Project lead

David Barnett

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General Manager

 Samantha Moodley

Samantha Moodley

Customer Service Executive

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Lee Anne Williams

Customer Service Coordinator

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Customer Service Executive

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Regional Director

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Customer Service Executive

Lee Anne Williams

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Customer Service Coordinator

Daniele Frustagli

General Manager

David Barnett

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General Manager

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Margita Thorén

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Customer Service Coordinator

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Global Customer Service Specialist & Project lead

 Sameen Kadli

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Sales Manager

Shoeb Ahmed

Shoeb Ahmed

Customer Service Coordinator

 Sibala Libish Kumar

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Global Customer Service Specialist & Project lead

 Marcela Tocelis

Marcela Tocelis

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 Martin Vergara

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Customer Service Coordinator

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Global Customer Service Specialist & Project lead

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Customer Service Executive

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Customer Service Coordinator

David Barnett

David Barnett

General Manager

 Samantha Moodley

Samantha Moodley

Customer Service Executive

Lee Anne Williams

Lee Anne Williams

Customer Service Coordinator

 Sameen Kadli

Sameen Kadli

Sales Manager

Shoeb Ahmed

Shoeb Ahmed

Customer Service Coordinator

 Sibala Libish Kumar

Sibala Libish Kumar

Global Customer Service Specialist & Project lead

David Barnett

David Barnett

General Manager

 Samantha Moodley

Samantha Moodley

Customer Service Executive

Lee Anne Williams

Lee Anne Williams

Customer Service Coordinator

Daniele Frustagli

General Manager

David Barnett

David Barnett

General Manager

 Samantha Moodley

Samantha Moodley

Customer Service Executive

Lee Anne Williams

Lee Anne Williams

Customer Service Coordinator

David Barnett

David Barnett

General Manager

 Samantha Moodley

Samantha Moodley

Customer Service Executive

Lee Anne Williams

Lee Anne Williams

Customer Service Coordinator

Lawrence Teo

Lawrence Teo

Area Sales Manager

 Georgina Ng

Georgina Ng

Customer Service Executive

Alistair Meyer

Alistair Meyer

Regional Director

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General Manager

Sabine Langmuller

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Customer Service Coordinator

 Ovidiu Nan

Ovidiu Nan

General Manager

Sabine Langmuller

Sabine Langmuller

Customer Service Coordinator

David Barnett

David Barnett

General Manager

 Samantha Moodley

Samantha Moodley

Customer Service Executive

Lee Anne Williams

Lee Anne Williams

Customer Service Coordinator

David Barnett

David Barnett

General Manager

 Samantha Moodley

Samantha Moodley

Customer Service Executive

Lee Anne Williams

Lee Anne Williams

Customer Service Coordinator

Lawrence Teo

Lawrence Teo

Area Sales Manager

 Georgina Ng

Georgina Ng

Customer Service Executive

Alistair Meyer

Alistair Meyer

Regional Director

Lawrence Teo

Lawrence Teo

Area Sales Manager

 Georgina Ng

Georgina Ng

Customer Service Executive

Alistair Meyer

Alistair Meyer

Regional Director

 Myriam Picado

Myriam Picado

General Manager / Sales Manager

 Juan Jiménez

Juan Jiménez

Sales Executive

 Jose Luis Maceda

Jose Luis Maceda

Customer Service Coordinator

 Gloria Villaverde Parrado

Gloria Villaverde Parrado

Customer Service Executive

Lawrence Teo

Lawrence Teo

Area Sales Manager

 Georgina Ng

Georgina Ng

Customer Service Executive

Alistair Meyer

Alistair Meyer

Regional Director

 Sameen Kadli

Sameen Kadli

Sales Manager

Shoeb Ahmed

Shoeb Ahmed

Customer Service Coordinator

 Sibala Libish Kumar

Sibala Libish Kumar

Global Customer Service Specialist & Project lead

 Marcela Tocelis

Marcela Tocelis

Sales Manager / Acting General Manager

 Martin Vergara

Martin Vergara

Customer Service Executive

 Juan Pablo Pace

Juan Pablo Pace

Customer Service Coordinator

David Barnett

David Barnett

General Manager

 Samantha Moodley

Samantha Moodley

Customer Service Executive

Lee Anne Williams

Lee Anne Williams

Customer Service Coordinator

 Henrik Marits

Henrik Marits

Sales Manager

Viktor Risendal

Sales Executive Nordic

Margita Thorén

Customer Service Coordinator

Eric Alfosea

Eric Alfosea

Sales Manager France

 Stéphanie Ly

Stéphanie Ly

Customer Service Executive

 Christine Le Garrec

Christine Le Garrec

Customer Service Coordinator

Sheilo Mienandi

Sheilo Mienandi

Customer Service Coordinator

 Sameen Kadli

Sameen Kadli

Sales Manager

Shoeb Ahmed

Shoeb Ahmed

Customer Service Coordinator

 Sibala Libish Kumar

Sibala Libish Kumar

Global Customer Service Specialist & Project lead

Lawrence Teo

Lawrence Teo

Area Sales Manager

 Georgina Ng

Georgina Ng

Customer Service Executive

Alistair Meyer

Alistair Meyer

Regional Director

David Barnett

David Barnett

General Manager

 Samantha Moodley

Samantha Moodley

Customer Service Executive

Lee Anne Williams

Lee Anne Williams

Customer Service Coordinator

Lawrence Teo

Lawrence Teo

Area Sales Manager

 Georgina Ng

Georgina Ng

Customer Service Executive

Alistair Meyer

Alistair Meyer

Regional Director

David Barnett

David Barnett

General Manager

 Samantha Moodley

Samantha Moodley

Customer Service Executive

Lee Anne Williams

Lee Anne Williams

Customer Service Coordinator

 Marcela Tocelis

Marcela Tocelis

Sales Manager / Acting General Manager

 Martin Vergara

Martin Vergara

Customer Service Executive

 Juan Pablo Pace

Juan Pablo Pace

Customer Service Coordinator

Eric Alfosea

Eric Alfosea

Sales Manager France

 Stéphanie Ly

Stéphanie Ly

Customer Service Executive

 Christine Le Garrec

Christine Le Garrec

Customer Service Coordinator

Sheilo Mienandi

Sheilo Mienandi

Customer Service Coordinator

Emil Cuculayef

Emil Cuculayef

Sales Executive

 Banu Kibar

Banu Kibar

Customer Service Coordinator

David Barnett

David Barnett

General Manager

 Samantha Moodley

Samantha Moodley

Customer Service Executive

Lee Anne Williams

Lee Anne Williams

Customer Service Coordinator

 Sameen Kadli

Sameen Kadli

Sales Manager

Shoeb Ahmed

Shoeb Ahmed

Customer Service Coordinator

 Sibala Libish Kumar

Sibala Libish Kumar

Global Customer Service Specialist & Project lead

 Marcela Tocelis

Marcela Tocelis

Sales Manager / Acting General Manager

 Martin Vergara

Martin Vergara

Customer Service Executive

 Juan Pablo Pace

Juan Pablo Pace

Customer Service Coordinator

 Marcela Tocelis

Marcela Tocelis

Sales Manager / Acting General Manager

 Marcela Tocelis

Marcela Tocelis

Sales Manager / Acting General Manager

 Martin Vergara

Martin Vergara

Customer Service Executive

 Juan Pablo Pace

Juan Pablo Pace

Customer Service Coordinator

Lawrence Teo

Lawrence Teo

Area Sales Manager

 Georgina Ng

Georgina Ng

Customer Service Executive

Alistair Meyer

Alistair Meyer

Regional Director

David Barnett

David Barnett

General Manager

 Samantha Moodley

Samantha Moodley

Customer Service Executive

Lee Anne Williams

Lee Anne Williams

Customer Service Coordinator

David Barnett

David Barnett

General Manager

 Samantha Moodley

Samantha Moodley

Customer Service Executive

Lee Anne Williams

Lee Anne Williams

Customer Service Coordinator