How much water is there in my transformer?

Minimising water in a transformer’s insulation system is important as excess water can increase the risk of dielectric failure and can also speed up the ageing of the cellulose based paper insulation.

The cellulose based solid insulation of power transformers is hygroscopic and before drying can contain up to as much as 5% water content by weight. During transformer manufacturing a drying stage is normally always necessary where the entire active part of the transformer undergoes a vapour phase or similar drying process – to try and remove as much water as possible from the solid insulation.

Once the active part is “out of the oven” it is normally a race against time to perform some mechanical adjustments and tightening to the windings and structures – place the active part in its tank and fill it with insulating oil. This is because one wants to minimise the moisture ingress after drying processes. Mineral insulating oil also contains some water – Nynas delivers insulating oil with a dissolved water content of less than 30 ppm.

Notwithstanding, it is best engineering practice to always filter, de-gas and dry insulating oil before filling in the transformer – typically most manufacturers dry the oil to ≈5 ppm water when filling the transformer through a purification unit.

However, the question is often asked: “can wet oil severely increase the overall moisture content in my transformer?” Likewise, some often wonder if a surprisingly low insulation resistance measurement on the transformer (after filling, normally an indication of wet insulation) is not due to “wet oil”. In most cases even water-in-oil values considered to be “high” (before filling) are in fact unlikely to increase the overall water content of the transformer significantly. This is due to the simple fact that the solid insulation carries (and can hold) far more water than the oil.

Typical amounts of water

To illustrate the typical amounts of water, a simple example follows where we assume a moderately sized power transformer with the following approximate figures:

Ideally, the solid insulation should have < 0.5% moisture by weight at time of tanking but there can be a range of acceptable/achievable levels depending on the situation. If one considers the amount of water contained in the solid insulation, just before oil filling – and in the oil itself, at time of filling (equilibrium curves do not apply):


Working on 4,000 kg of paper/cellulose

Working on 28,000 kg of oil

There is indeed much lower water content in the oil than the paper in total. If one takes the example of 0.5% moisture in paper (at time of tanking, which is fairly optimistic) and 20 ppm in oil (which is fairly pessimistic as normally oil is run through a purification unit) the difference is still about 20 litres of water in the paper and 560 ml in the oil. So a rule of thumb to remember could be the water in your office’s water dispenser (in paper) versus a small drinking water bottle (in oil).

Insulating paper can hold much more water than the oil. Should one end up with unacceptably wet paper, trying to dry the paper by drying the oil is normally frivolous and therefore methods such as hot oil spraying, low frequency heating with vacuum (on the drained transformer) or repeating vapour phase drying (on the active part) are the most effective techniques in drying a wet transformer.

Further reading

Solving a transformer leak mystery

Retro-filling with gas-to-liquids (GTL) oil might cause problems with leaks in transformers previously filled with naphthenic oil. That is what Nynas scientists found when conducting an investigative study following customer reports about transformer leaks.

A medical check-up that can save your transformer life

Did you know there is a diagnostic technique like your medical check-up that is applied to electrical transformers and that can prevent thermal and electrical failures? This technique is known as DGA or Dissolved Gas Analysis.

Doubling down on CO2

By choosing NYTRO® BIO 300X for their transformers, utilities take steps towards sustainability. Apart from being bio-based, biodegradable, renewable, and recyclable, Nynas’ innovative transformer liquid also offers superior performance, further reducing carbon footprints.

THERE IS MORE TO US THAN THIS

We are delighted you are interested in our products. If you have any questions about our products and services, get in touch with your local Nynas contact. Besides top quality oils, we offer a wide range of services, including rapid delivery worldwide, training, seminars and much more. All you have to do is ask.

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 Thorsten Wolff

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General Manager Germany & Austria

Lars Fischer

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Sales Executive Process Oils

 Elena Campmann

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Customer Service Specialist – Global Processes and Development Lead

Selina Walther

Selina Walther

Customer Service Coordinator

Michelle Krämer

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Customer Service Coordinator

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Global Customer Service Specialist & Project lead

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Global Customer Service Specialist & Project lead

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David Barnett

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Global Customer Service Specialist & Project lead

 Sameen Kadli

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Sales Manager

Shoeb Ahmed

Shoeb Ahmed

Customer Service Coordinator

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Global Customer Service Specialist & Project lead

 Marcela Tocelis

Marcela Tocelis

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Global Customer Service Specialist & Project lead

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Customer Service Coordinator

David Barnett

David Barnett

General Manager

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Samantha Moodley

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Lee Anne Williams

Lee Anne Williams

Customer Service Coordinator

 Sameen Kadli

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Sales Manager

Shoeb Ahmed

Shoeb Ahmed

Customer Service Coordinator

 Sibala Libish Kumar

Sibala Libish Kumar

Global Customer Service Specialist & Project lead

David Barnett

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Customer Service Executive

Lee Anne Williams

Lee Anne Williams

Customer Service Coordinator

Daniele Frustagli

General Manager

David Barnett

David Barnett

General Manager

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Samantha Moodley

Customer Service Executive

Lee Anne Williams

Lee Anne Williams

Customer Service Coordinator

David Barnett

David Barnett

General Manager

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Samantha Moodley

Customer Service Executive

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Lee Anne Williams

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Lawrence Teo

Lawrence Teo

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 Georgina Ng

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Sabine Langmuller

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Samantha Moodley

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Lee Anne Williams

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David Barnett

David Barnett

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Samantha Moodley

Customer Service Executive

Lee Anne Williams

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Customer Service Coordinator

Lawrence Teo

Lawrence Teo

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 Georgina Ng

Georgina Ng

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Alistair Meyer

Alistair Meyer

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Lawrence Teo

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 Georgina Ng

Georgina Ng

Customer Service Executive

Alistair Meyer

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General Manager / Sales Manager

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Sales Executive

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Jose Luis Maceda

Customer Service Coordinator

 Gloria Villaverde Parrado

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 Georgina Ng

Georgina Ng

Customer Service Executive

Alistair Meyer

Alistair Meyer

Regional Director

 Sameen Kadli

Sameen Kadli

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Shoeb Ahmed

Shoeb Ahmed

Customer Service Coordinator

 Sibala Libish Kumar

Sibala Libish Kumar

Global Customer Service Specialist & Project lead

 Marcela Tocelis

Marcela Tocelis

Sales Manager / Acting General Manager

 Martin Vergara

Martin Vergara

Customer Service Executive

 Juan Pablo Pace

Juan Pablo Pace

Customer Service Coordinator

David Barnett

David Barnett

General Manager

 Samantha Moodley

Samantha Moodley

Customer Service Executive

Lee Anne Williams

Lee Anne Williams

Customer Service Coordinator

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Sales Executive Nordic

Margita Thorén

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Sheilo Mienandi

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 Sameen Kadli

Sameen Kadli

Sales Manager

Shoeb Ahmed

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Customer Service Coordinator

 Sibala Libish Kumar

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Global Customer Service Specialist & Project lead

Lawrence Teo

Lawrence Teo

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Georgina Ng

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Alistair Meyer

Alistair Meyer

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David Barnett

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 Samantha Moodley

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Customer Service Coordinator

Lawrence Teo

Lawrence Teo

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 Georgina Ng

Georgina Ng

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Alistair Meyer

Alistair Meyer

Regional Director

David Barnett

David Barnett

General Manager

 Samantha Moodley

Samantha Moodley

Customer Service Executive

Lee Anne Williams

Lee Anne Williams

Customer Service Coordinator

 Marcela Tocelis

Marcela Tocelis

Sales Manager / Acting General Manager

 Martin Vergara

Martin Vergara

Customer Service Executive

 Juan Pablo Pace

Juan Pablo Pace

Customer Service Coordinator

Eric Alfosea

Eric Alfosea

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 Stéphanie Ly

Stéphanie Ly

Customer Service Executive

 Christine Le Garrec

Christine Le Garrec

Customer Service Coordinator

Sheilo Mienandi

Sheilo Mienandi

Customer Service Coordinator

Emil Cuculayef

Emil Cuculayef

Sales Manager

 Banu Kibar

Banu Kibar

Customer Service Executive

Cagatay Gürol

Customer Service Coordinator

David Barnett

David Barnett

General Manager

 Samantha Moodley

Samantha Moodley

Customer Service Executive

Lee Anne Williams

Lee Anne Williams

Customer Service Coordinator

 Sameen Kadli

Sameen Kadli

Sales Manager

Shoeb Ahmed

Shoeb Ahmed

Customer Service Coordinator

 Sibala Libish Kumar

Sibala Libish Kumar

Global Customer Service Specialist & Project lead

 Marcela Tocelis

Marcela Tocelis

Sales Manager / Acting General Manager

 Martin Vergara

Martin Vergara

Customer Service Executive

 Juan Pablo Pace

Juan Pablo Pace

Customer Service Coordinator

 Marcela Tocelis

Marcela Tocelis

Sales Manager / Acting General Manager

 Marcela Tocelis

Marcela Tocelis

Sales Manager / Acting General Manager

 Martin Vergara

Martin Vergara

Customer Service Executive

 Juan Pablo Pace

Juan Pablo Pace

Customer Service Coordinator

Lawrence Teo

Lawrence Teo

Area Sales Manager

 Georgina Ng

Georgina Ng

Customer Service Executive

Alistair Meyer

Alistair Meyer

Regional Director

David Barnett

David Barnett

General Manager

 Samantha Moodley

Samantha Moodley

Customer Service Executive

Lee Anne Williams

Lee Anne Williams

Customer Service Coordinator

David Barnett

David Barnett

General Manager

 Samantha Moodley

Samantha Moodley

Customer Service Executive

Lee Anne Williams

Lee Anne Williams

Customer Service Coordinator