From H2O to H2 Carbon Zero

Green hydrogen is being eyed as key in the global push towards a more sustainable energy future. However, its widespread adoption depends on overcoming technological and economic challenges.

How it’s made

Green hydrogen is produced through the electrolysis of water, using electricity generated from renewable sources such as wind, solar or hydroelectric power. This process splits water into oxygen and hydrogen gas, without emitting carbon dioxide or other harmful pollutants.

Green, grey or blue

GREY HYDROGEN is produced from natural gas through steam methane reforming. The most common form currently, it is less expensive than green hydrogen, but produces significant amounts of CO2 during production. Replacing natural gas with bio-LNG offers a significant improvement until a transition to green energy is more accessible.
BLUE HYDROGEN is also produced from natural gas, but the CO2 emissions are captured and stored or used. It is considered a transitional solution, since it is cleaner than grey hydrogen but still relies on fossil raw material.
GREEN HYDROGEN differs from grey and blue hydrogen as it does not contribute to CO2 emissions during production. Its main challenge lies in the higher production costs and the need for substantial renewable energy sources and infrastructure. If green hydrogen replaces current grey hydrogen usage worldwide, it could reduce CO2 emissions by around 830 million tonnes annually, based on current production methods and applications. After 2025, almost all new hydrogen production is projected to be clean.

236 times more energy

per unit mass can be stored in hydrogen compared to lithium-ion batteries, making it an excellent option for long-term and large-scale energy storage. The high energy content per weight also makes hydrogen a powerful fuel source.

Nynas and hydrogen

The supply of hydrogen is key to Nynas’ specialised manufacturing processes. It is used to improve the chemical composition of the products and to eliminate impurities. By substituting naphtha with natural gas to produce the hydrogen required to manufacture Nynas special products, CO2 emissions have been reduced by approximately 20,000 tonnes annually.

We are closely monitoring developments within green hydrogen, as part of our objective to achieve climate neutrality by 2050. In addition to hydrotreatment, this includes using hydrogen as an energy source to fuel our production. All our main production sites are well-positioned to take part in large hydrogen generation projects.

40 gigawatts (GW)

The European Union has ambitious targets for installation of renewable hydrogen electrolyzers by 2030.

Versatile energy carrier

Hydrogen can be used in a wide range of applications, including fuel for vehicles, heating and electricity generation as well as a raw material in industrial processes.

Falling production costs

The cost of producing green hydrogen is expected to fall significantly. It could become competitive with hydrogen from fossil fuels by 2030, with projected costs ranging from $1.50 to $4.50 per kilogram, depending on the region and technology.

Attracting investment

Global investment in green hydrogen is surging, with an estimated $300 billion in projects announced by 2030. This includes investments in electrolyzer production, renewable energy capacity, and infrastructure for distribution and storage.

$11 trillion

Forecasted market value of the green hydrogen market by 2050. This exponential growth is driven by the demand for clean energy solutions across various sectors, including transportation, industry and power generation.

Challenges ahead

Hydrogen (H2) is the world's smallest molecule and highly explosive. It is complex to store and transport and expensive to produce, especially if it is to be made green, as the various steps in the process are associated with energy losses. Infrastructure development and technological advancements are critical for meeting the clean hydrogen demand and ensuring its uptake across key sectors. Meeting the global green hydrogen production targets could require more than 3,000 GW of new renewable energy capacity by 2050, which is more than the current global wind and solar capacity combined. Part of the solution to this challenge could be “pink hydrogen”, which is generated through electrolysis powered by low-carbon nuclear energy.

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