Naphthenic oil improves artificial fertilisers

The use of fertilisers around the world to boost agricultural production is both vital and constantly under critical scrutiny. Developing products that provide optimum benefits both economically and from an ecological viewpoint is an important challenge for the artificial fertiliser producer. Very small quantities of oil are employed in the production of fertilisers. The market demands optimal products and every link of the chain must be taken into consideration, including the properties of the oil being used.

Emma Öberg

Development Engineer, Nynas

She joined Nynas in 2016.

Choosing a NYTEX® or NYFLEX® oil for the anti-caking system of fertiliser pellets can contribute to a more attractive product. This oil has outstanding abilities to dissolve substances and a high level of refinement that provides distinct advantages over most of the other oils currently used.

Fertilisers consist of various combinations of nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium compounds. Depending on its composition and use, artificial fertiliser is normally available as liquid or solids, i.e. granules or pellets. In this article, we deal only with solids, the predominant form of fertiliser in Europe, Asia and Africa, and also an important form in North America.

Dissolves amines effectively

Using them in a solid form simplifies the handling of fertilisers and means that the contents are released more slowly into the soil. This reduces the risk of nutrients leaching out. The surface of individual granules must be treated, however, to ensure that granules do not cake together or form dust. A free-flowing, dust-free fertiliser is important for handling at all stages, from production to end use.

Some fertiliser manufacturers make their own anti-caking systems, while others buy in ready-made mixtures.

An anti-caking system consists primarily of two components: an additive and an oil. Sometimes a powder of talcum or clay may also be used during the treatment of the granule. The additive, which often contains amines, plays the most important part and is also the most expensive ingredient. The oil functions as a carrier for the additive. The oil is sprayed on the granules and the powder is dispensed as needed and attaches itself to the surface. An alternative to this treatment is to use a ready-made mixture containing oil, amine and, for example, wax. Such mixtures are usually used without powder.

The oil has to have good solubility properties to enable it to effectively dissolve the amines. This means that naphthenic oil, even a very highly refined oil with a low aromatic content, functions well in this respect. A highly refined paraffinic oil has poorer solubility properties and therefore works less well.

Less environmental impact

It must also be possible to pump the oil at low temperatures if it is to function in practice in the mixing process. This is possible with naphthenic oils, while the corresponding paraffinic oils would have to be warmed to higher temperatures. Also, during the spraying process of the anti-caking agent, naphthenic oils require less heating. Once sprayed, naphthenic oils quickly increase in viscosity and remain on the surface, shielding the fertilizer granule.

Neither highly refined naphthenic base oil nor highly refined paraffinic base oil is currently the obvious choice for the makers and users of anti-caking systems. A number of different types of oil are used, from vegetable oils to diesel oils and less refined fuel oils.

The fact that less refined oils can be included in products that are spread on the fields is not actually as strange as it sounds, since the amounts of oil are extremely small. You have to bear in mind that environmental requirements do not always relate directly to actual environmental consequences.

But there are other arguments in favour of using a highly refined oil, apart from the reduced environmental impact. An important one is that a highly refined product is virtually odour-free. You cannot ignore the psychological impact of the strong oily smell that is given off by fertilisers in warm silos, when anti-caking systems containing less refined oils have been used.

Small amounts of undesirable matter

When an oil is highly refined it means that the material’s aromatic content is low and the polyaromatic content, the PCA, is extremely low. In addition, the sulphur content is very low. It is polyaromatics that are responsible for the undesirable characteristics when it comes to toxicity. Aromatics, however, give good solubility properties. As long as the aromatic content is high, then, it does not matter so much whether the oil is naphthenic or paraffinic. It is when you are looking for a highly refined alternative that the good solubility properties of the naphthenic molecules become interesting.

Tests demonstrate oils’ properties

Nynas has long had customers who use naphthenic speciality oils for anti-caking systems. To achieve the desired properties, the oil has a high degree of refining and thereby a DMSO extractable content of less than 3 wt% according to IP 346. This corresponds to a low PCA content and means that the oil does not have to be labelled.

Nynas Naphthenics provides oils in various viscosity classes. Different oils can be suitable, depending on what type of problem and fertiliser is being dealt with.

We carried out tests using Nynas oils NYTEX 810 and NYTEX 840 (tab. 1) together with an amine functionalised talcum to demonstrate the oils’ function. Important parameters were caking tendency (fig. 1), dusting tendency (fig. 2), humidity absorption (figs. 3 and 4) and flow properties (fig. 5). 


Table 1: Characteristics of oils in study

Four systems were tested:
1= No treatment
2 = Functionalised talcum with paraffinic oil
3 = Functionalised talcum with NYTEX 840
4 = Functionalised talcum with NYTEX 810

The NPK fertiliser is of the type NPK 24/6/12 (which shows the composition). The CAN is of the type CAN 23 (MgO).

The fertiliser pellets were sprayed first with talcum and then with oil. The oil was sprayed using a hot spray gun.

Caking tendency

The pellets were kept for one hour in a sphere at 100 percent humidity and then put into a press at a pressure of 1 kg/cm2 for 24 hours. Subsequently, the energy needed to break the caked pellets was measured. The stated result is the average of five measurements, with a standard deviation of 2.

Figure 1: Caking tendency

Dusting tendency

The pellets were stored at 23°C with a humidity of 55 percent. Once a week, a sample of the product was sifted for four minutes. The difference in weight between the pellets before and after sifting is a measure of the amount of dust produced.

Figure 2: Dusting tendency

Humidity absorption

10 to 15 grams of the fertiliser pellets were stored at room temperature with a humidity of 100 percent. The samples were weighed after 5, 24, 48 and 72 hours.

Figure 3: Humidity absorption NPK

Figure 4: Humidity absorption CAN

Flow properties

Fertiliser pellets were spread out on a board, which was then tipped progressively. The incline at which all of the pellets flowed was then measured. This value indicates the ability of the pellets to flow easily.

The addition of functionalised talcum and oil significantly increased the flow properties of the pellets.

Figure 5: Flow properties

Conclusion

The tests showed clearly that the addition of an anti-caking system significantly improves the fertiliser’s storage behaviour. Comparing the influence of the oil, using the Nynas NYTEX 840 produces better results in all parameters compared to the paraffinic oil used in this test. An oil of higher viscosity produces lower dusting and caking tendencies. Nynas NYTEX 810 improves the fertiliser’s storage behaviour and has a low viscosity, which makes for easier handling.

Further reading

Fertile formulations

Having established in-house coating and testing of solid fertiliser, a Nynas researcher finds that naphthenic process oils offer coating formulations capable of reducing both dust and caking issues.

Sealing deal for Sealants

Producers of silicone sealants need look no further. Nynas has developed a range of specially designed silicone fluid alternatives that are cost-efficient and offer the right balance in formulations between viscosity, colour stability and volatility.

Hot solution for hot melts

By boosting the compatibility of ingredients, naphthenic mineral oils are providing hot melt adhesive manufacturers with new and more flexible formulations

THERE IS MORE TO US THAN THIS

We are delighted you are interested in our products. If you have any questions about our products and services, get in touch with your local Nynas contact. Besides top quality oils, we offer a wide range of services, including rapid delivery worldwide, training, seminars and much more. All you have to do is ask.

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Lee Anne Williams

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Customer Service Coordinator

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APAC Regional Director

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Lawrence Teo

Lawrence Teo

Area Sales Manager Malaysia, Sri Lanka and Bangladesh

 Georgina Ng

Georgina Ng

Customer Service Executive

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Customer Service Executive

David Barnett

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Sales Manager

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Lee Anne Williams

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General Manager

David Barnett

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General Manager

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Christine Le Garrec

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Sheilo Mienandi

Customer Service Coordinator

David Barnett

David Barnett

Sales Manager

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Melissa Hill

Sales Representative

 Samantha Moodley

Samantha Moodley

Customer Service Executive

Lee Anne Williams

Lee Anne Williams

Customer Service Coordinator

 Jason Wong

Jason Wong

APAC Regional Director

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Rio Nasution

General Manager / Sales Manager

Lawrence Teo

Lawrence Teo

Area Sales Manager Malaysia, Sri Lanka and Bangladesh

 Georgina Ng

Georgina Ng

Customer Service Executive

 Dawn Tay

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Customer Service Executive

David Barnett

David Barnett

Sales Manager

 Melissa Hill

Melissa Hill

Sales Representative

 Samantha Moodley

Samantha Moodley

Customer Service Executive

Lee Anne Williams

Lee Anne Williams

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Jaap Schoneveld

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Lina Maria Zuluaga

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David Barnett

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Melissa Hill

Sales Representative

 Samantha Moodley

Samantha Moodley

Customer Service Executive

Lee Anne Williams

Lee Anne Williams

Customer Service Coordinator

 Paul Bester

Paul Bester

Channel Manager CEETMEIA

David Barnett

David Barnett

Sales Manager

 Melissa Hill

Melissa Hill

Sales Representative

 Samantha Moodley

Samantha Moodley

Customer Service Executive

Lee Anne Williams

Lee Anne Williams

Customer Service Coordinator

 Abigail Waller

Abigail Waller

General Manager / Sales Manager

Farhana Mitha

Farhana Mitha

Sales Executive

 Henrik Marits

Henrik Marits

Sales Manager

Viktor Risendal

Sales Executive Nordic

Margita Thorén

Customer Service Coordinator

 Paul Bester

Paul Bester

Channel Manager CEETMEIA

 Sameen Kadli

Sameen Kadli

Customer Service Executive

 Sibala Libish Kumar

Sibala Libish Kumar

Customer Service Executive

 Paul Bester

Paul Bester

Channel Manager CEETMEIA

 Sameen Kadli

Sameen Kadli

Customer Service Executive

 Sibala Libish Kumar

Sibala Libish Kumar

Customer Service Executive

 Marcela Tocelis

Marcela Tocelis

Sales Manager / Acting General Manager

 Lina Maria Zuluaga

Lina Maria Zuluaga

Sales Executive

 Martin Vergara

Martin Vergara

Customer Service Executive

 Juan Pablo Pace

Juan Pablo Pace

Customer Service Coordinator

 Marcela Tocelis

Marcela Tocelis

Sales Manager / Acting General Manager

 Lina Maria Zuluaga

Lina Maria Zuluaga

Sales Executive

 Martin Vergara

Martin Vergara

Customer Service Executive

 Juan Pablo Pace

Juan Pablo Pace

Customer Service Coordinator

 Marcela Tocelis

Marcela Tocelis

Sales Manager / Acting General Manager

 Lina Maria Zuluaga

Lina Maria Zuluaga

Sales Executive

 Martin Vergara

Martin Vergara

Customer Service Executive

 Juan Pablo Pace

Juan Pablo Pace

Customer Service Coordinator

 Jason Wong

Jason Wong

APAC Regional Director

 Rio Nasution

Rio Nasution

General Manager / Sales Manager

Lawrence Teo

Lawrence Teo

Area Sales Manager Malaysia, Sri Lanka and Bangladesh

 Georgina Ng

Georgina Ng

Customer Service Executive

 Dawn Tay

Dawn Tay

Customer Service Executive

 Rafal Pajak

Rafal Pajak

Sales Manager

 Mateusz Kopecki

Mateusz Kopecki

Sales Executive

 Edyta Bartosz

Edyta Bartosz

Customer Service Coordinator

 Aldona Dziedzic

Aldona Dziedzic

Customer Service Executive

 Myriam Picado

Myriam Picado

General Manager / Sales Manager

 Juan Jiménez

Juan Jiménez

Sales Executive

 Jose Luis Maceda

Jose Luis Maceda

Customer Service Coordinator

 Gloria Villaverde Parrado

Gloria Villaverde Parrado

Customer Service Executive

Maria Jose Municio

Maria Jose Municio

Sales Executive

Maria Jose Municio

Maria Jose Municio

Sales Executive

 Marcela Tocelis

Marcela Tocelis

Sales Manager / Acting General Manager

 Lina Maria Zuluaga

Lina Maria Zuluaga

Sales Executive

 Martin Vergara

Martin Vergara

Customer Service Executive

 Juan Pablo Pace

Juan Pablo Pace

Customer Service Coordinator

 Paul Bester

Paul Bester

Channel Manager CEETMEIA

 Sameen Kadli

Sameen Kadli

Customer Service Executive

 Sibala Libish Kumar

Sibala Libish Kumar

Customer Service Executive

 Ovidiu Nan

Ovidiu Nan

General Manager

Sabine Langmuller

Sabine Langmuller

Customer Service Coordinator

David Barnett

David Barnett

Sales Manager

 Melissa Hill

Melissa Hill

Sales Representative

 Samantha Moodley

Samantha Moodley

Customer Service Executive

Lee Anne Williams

Lee Anne Williams

Customer Service Coordinator

David Barnett

David Barnett

Sales Manager

 Melissa Hill

Melissa Hill

Sales Representative

 Samantha Moodley

Samantha Moodley

Customer Service Executive

Lee Anne Williams

Lee Anne Williams

Customer Service Coordinator

 Paul Bester

Paul Bester

Channel Manager CEETMEIA

 Sameen Kadli

Sameen Kadli

Customer Service Executive

 Sibala Libish Kumar

Sibala Libish Kumar

Customer Service Executive

 Abigail Waller

Abigail Waller

General Manager / Sales Manager

Farhana Mitha

Farhana Mitha

Sales Executive

David Barnett

David Barnett

Sales Manager

 Melissa Hill

Melissa Hill

Sales Representative

 Samantha Moodley

Samantha Moodley

Customer Service Executive

Lee Anne Williams

Lee Anne Williams

Customer Service Coordinator

Marco Roncelli

Marco Roncelli

Sales Executive

 Ilenia Bellotti

Ilenia Bellotti

Customer Service Executive

Daniele Frustagli

General Manager

David Barnett

David Barnett

Sales Manager

 Melissa Hill

Melissa Hill

Sales Representative

 Samantha Moodley

Samantha Moodley

Customer Service Executive

Lee Anne Williams

Lee Anne Williams

Customer Service Coordinator

David Barnett

David Barnett

Sales Manager

 Melissa Hill

Melissa Hill

Sales Representative

 Samantha Moodley

Samantha Moodley

Customer Service Executive

Lee Anne Williams

Lee Anne Williams

Customer Service Coordinator

 Jason Wong

Jason Wong

APAC Regional Director

 Rio Nasution

Rio Nasution

General Manager / Sales Manager

Lawrence Teo

Lawrence Teo

Area Sales Manager Malaysia, Sri Lanka and Bangladesh

 Georgina Ng

Georgina Ng

Customer Service Executive

 Dawn Tay

Dawn Tay

Customer Service Executive

 Ovidiu Nan

Ovidiu Nan

General Manager

Sabine Langmuller

Sabine Langmuller

Customer Service Coordinator

 Ovidiu Nan

Ovidiu Nan

General Manager

Sabine Langmuller

Sabine Langmuller

Customer Service Coordinator

David Barnett

David Barnett

Sales Manager

 Melissa Hill

Melissa Hill

Sales Representative

 Samantha Moodley

Samantha Moodley

Customer Service Executive

Lee Anne Williams

Lee Anne Williams

Customer Service Coordinator

David Barnett

David Barnett

Sales Manager

 Melissa Hill

Melissa Hill

Sales Representative

 Samantha Moodley

Samantha Moodley

Customer Service Executive

Lee Anne Williams

Lee Anne Williams

Customer Service Coordinator

 Jason Wong

Jason Wong

APAC Regional Director

 Rio Nasution

Rio Nasution

General Manager / Sales Manager

Lawrence Teo

Lawrence Teo

Area Sales Manager Malaysia, Sri Lanka and Bangladesh

 Georgina Ng

Georgina Ng

Customer Service Executive

 Dawn Tay

Dawn Tay

Customer Service Executive

 Myriam Picado

Myriam Picado

General Manager / Sales Manager

 Juan Jiménez

Juan Jiménez

Sales Executive

 Jose Luis Maceda

Jose Luis Maceda

Customer Service Coordinator